Marine Mammal Sightings - Southern California Bight [ds395]

SDE Feature Class

Open this dataset in BIOS

Tags
biota, Channel Islands, marine mammals, southern California Bight, California, southern California, aerial survey, environment


Summary

Recent changes in oceanography and human demography prompted a need for updated information regarding at-sea populations of seabirds and marine mammals in the Bight.

Description

Aerial at-sea and coastal surveys were conducted to examine the distribution and abundance of marine mammals (Pierson et al. 2004) off Southern California, from Cambria, California to the Mexican border and including the area 90 to 180 km from the shoreline. From May 1999 to January 2002, nine complete aerial surveys were flown throughout the survey area, with monthly replicated (n=2 per month/year) surveys flown throughout the central portion (e.g., area surrounding the northern Channel Islands). In total, flights occurred on 102 days, covering over 54,640 km of transects throughout the entire southern California Bight (Bight) during January, May, and September. Along coastal transects while on effort, a total of 1588 sightings of marine mammals were recorded comprising 9 species. Along offshore transects while on effort, a total of 1278 sightings were recorded comprising 18 species. In total, 20 unique species were identified including four pinnipeds, one carnivore (California sea otter), and 15 cetaceans.

Credits

Extensive fieldwork in 1999-2002 was conducted jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (Western Ecological Research Center, Vallejo and Dixon, California; Principal Investigators J.Y. Takekawa and D.L. Orthmeyer) and Humboldt State University (Department of Wildlife, Arcata, California; Principal Investigators R.T. Golightly and H.R. Carter; Project Leader: G.J. McChesney). Major contributions to fieldwork were made by J. Mason and W. McIver. Significant contributions to data analyses were made by W. Perry, J. Yee, J. Adams, and J. Ackerman. Major project cooperators included Minerals Management Service (M. Pierson, M. McCrary) and the U.S. Navy (S. Schwartz, T. Keeney), and California Department of Fish and Game (P. Kelly, E. Burkett).

Use limitations

This information may be cited and analyzed for summary reports but not used for scientific publication without permission from the authors. Please cite US Geological Survey and Humboldt State University if these data are used or included in developed products.

Extent

West -122.083370 East -117.083553
North 35.664919 South 32.415137

Scale Range

ArcGIS Metadata

Topics and Keywords

Themes or categories of the resource environment, biota


* Content type Downloadable Data


Place keywords Channel Islands, southern California Bight, California, southern California

Theme keywords biota, environment

Thesaurus
Title ISO 19115 Topic Category




Theme keywords marine mammals, aerial survey

Citation

* Title DS0395_20080213
Publication date 2005-08-24


Presentation formats * digital map


Citation Contacts

Responsible party
Organization's name US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Western Ecological Research Center and Humboldt State University
Contact's role originator


Resource Details

Dataset languages English(UNITED STATES)


Status completed
Spatial representation type * vector


Supplemental information
This file contains species and taxon grouping observations summarized as monthly proportional sighting values for all marine mammals (proportion species was present per total number of surveys per grid cell) scaled to 5 minute blocks of latitude-longitude grid cells. Marine mammal sightings are summarized and presented as a proportion of presence for each unique 5 minute latitude-longitude grid cell (i.e., if California sea lions were observed 4 times out of 6 possible surveys for a given cell, the cell would have the proportional value = 0.667). For cells adjacent to mainland and island coastlines (coastal) all sightings are from surveys flown parallel to shore (i.e., sightings for cells from perpendicular offshore transect segments that intersected the coastline were not included in the calculation of proportional sighting for coastal cells). Surveys for marine mammals were coincident with seabird surveys and flown at 60 m (200 ft) above sea level at 160 km/hr (90 knots) ground speed. The surveys were flown in a high-winged, twin engine Partenavia PN 68 Observer aircraft following methods developed for seabirds by Briggs et al. (1987). GPS points were recorded every five seconds to limit the size of the resulting data files and to allow adequate spatial coverage to delimit individual tracklines (225 m is traversed every five seconds at the survey speed of 160 km/hr). Data were collected using a laptop computer running Program dLOG (R.G. Ford Consulting, Inc.). Observers sat on both sides of the aircraft and scanned the sea surface through bubble windows. Each of two observers counted and identified all marine mammals within a 50 meter strip on both sides of the aircraft (total strip width equal to 100 meters when both observers were surveying simultaneously). Observations were confined to one observer (one side equal to 50 m strip width) when glare obscured > 25% of the second observer's field of view. To ensure a strip width of 50 meters, observers estimated sighting angles from the aircraft to the water using clinometers. Observers rechecked sighting angles with a clinometer several times during each survey. Marine mammal observations were recorded on audiotape using hand-held tape recorders. Animals were identified to species or nearest taxon. Exact counts were made for solitary individuals or small groups and estimated numbers for groups >10. For each observation, time was recorded to the nearest second, along with species and number. Observers also noted behavior; however, these data are not reported here. Each observer transcribed data from audiotape onto standardized data forms and entered data into the computer program SIGHT (Micro Computer Solutions, Portland, OR, USA). SIGHT was used because it had preset data entry protocols that helped to ensure entry accuracy. Two people checked data entry for accuracy by printing SIGHT data for comparison with transcribed forms. REFERENCES: BRIGGS, K. T., W. G. Tyler, D. B. Lewis, and D. R. Carlson. 1987. Bird communities at sea off California, 1975-1983. Studies in Avian Biology 11:1-74. MASON, J. W., G. J. McChesney, W. R. McIver, H. R. Carter, J. Y. Takekawa, R. T. Golightly, J. T. Ackerman, D. L. Orthmeyer, W. M. Perry, J. L. Yee, M. O. Pierson, and M. D. McCrary. 2007. At-Sea Distribution and Abundance of Seabirds off Southern California: A 20-Year Comparison. Studies in Avian Biology 33: 1-XX. PIERSON, M. O., J. W. Mason, M. D. McCrary, G. J. McChesney, W. R. McIver, H. R. Carter, R. T. Golightly, D. L. Orthmeyer, J. Y. Takekawa, W. M. Perry, and J. L. Yee. 2004. At-sea aerial surveys of marine mammals in the southern California Bight: 1999-2002, In: Takekawa, J. Y., H. R. Carter, D. L. Orthmeyer, R. T. Golightly, J. T. Ackerman, G. J. McChesney,Mason, J. W., J. Adams, W. R. McIver, M. O. Pierson, and C. D. Hamilton. 2004. At-sea distribution and abundance of seabirds and marine mammals in the southern California Bight: 1999-2003. Unpublished summary report, U. S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Vallejo, CA; and Humboldt State University, Department of Wildlife, Arcata, CA 309 p.
* Processing environment Microsoft Windows 7 Version 6.1 (Build 7601) Service Pack 1; Esri ArcGIS 10.1.1.3143


Credits
Extensive fieldwork in 1999-2002 was conducted jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey (Western Ecological Research Center, Vallejo and Dixon, California; Principal Investigators J.Y. Takekawa and D.L. Orthmeyer) and Humboldt State University (Department of Wildlife, Arcata, California; Principal Investigators R.T. Golightly and H.R. Carter; Project Leader: G.J. McChesney). Major contributions to fieldwork were made by J. Mason and W. McIver. Significant contributions to data analyses were made by W. Perry, J. Yee, J. Adams, and J. Ackerman. Major project cooperators included Minerals Management Service (M. Pierson, M. McCrary) and the U.S. Navy (S. Schwartz, T. Keeney), and California Department of Fish and Game (P. Kelly, E. Burkett).
ArcGIS item properties
* Name DS0395_20080213
* Location Server=; :; Database=; User=; Version=
* Access protocol ArcSDE Connection

Extents

Extent
Description
ground condition
Extent
Geographic extent
Bounding rectangle
Extent type Extent used for searching
* West longitude -122.083370
* East longitude -117.083553
* North latitude 35.664919
* South latitude 32.415137
* Extent contains the resource Yes

Extent in the item's coordinate system
* West longitude -13590258.628900
* East longitude -13033681.457500
* South latitude 3817928.029100
* North latitude 4254612.198500
* Extent contains the resource Yes

Resource Points of Contact

Point of contact
Individual's name John Takekawa
Organization's name US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Western Ecological Research Center
Contact's position Research Wildlife Biologist
Contact's role point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 530-669-5060

Address
Type both
Delivery point 505 Azuar Drive
City Vallejo
Administrative area Ca
Postal code 94592
Country US
e-mail address john_takekawa@usgs.gov

Hours of service
8-5


Resource Maintenance

Resource maintenance
Update frequency not planned


Resource Constraints

Legal constraints
Limitations of use
The USGS Western Ecological Research Center and its research partners make every effort to provide and maintain accurate, complete, usable, and timely information. However, some USGS data and information may, of necessity, be preliminary in nature. These data and information are provided with the understanding that they are not guaranteed to be correct or complete. Users are cautioned to consider carefully the provisional nature of these data and information before using them for decisions that concern personal or public safety or the conduct of business that involves substantial monetary or operational consequences. It is also strongly recommended that careful attention be paid to the contents of the metadata file associated with these data and information. Conclusions drawn from, or actions undertaken on the basis of, such data and information are the sole responsibility of the user
Other constraints
Data is to be made available for public viewing but not for public download or distribution. Contact William Perry for distribution of data.
Constraints
Limitations of use
This information may be cited and analyzed for summary reports but not used for scientific publication without permission from the authors. Please cite US Geological Survey and Humboldt State University if these data are used or included in developed products.

Spatial Reference

ArcGIS coordinate system
* Type Projected
* Geographic coordinate reference GCS_WGS_1984
* Projection WGS_1984_Web_Mercator_Auxiliary_Sphere
* Coordinate reference details
Projected coordinate system
Well-known identifier 102100
X origin -20037700
Y origin -30241100
XY scale 10000
Z origin 0
Z scale 1
M origin 0
M scale 1
XY tolerance 0.001
Z tolerance 2
M tolerance 2
High precision true
Latest well-known identifier 3857
Well-known text PROJCS["WGS_1984_Web_Mercator_Auxiliary_Sphere",GEOGCS["GCS_WGS_1984",DATUM["D_WGS_1984",SPHEROID["WGS_1984",6378137.0,298.257223563]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0.0],UNIT["Degree",0.0174532925199433]],PROJECTION["Mercator_Auxiliary_Sphere"],PARAMETER["False_Easting",0.0],PARAMETER["False_Northing",0.0],PARAMETER["Central_Meridian",0.0],PARAMETER["Standard_Parallel_1",0.0],PARAMETER["Auxiliary_Sphere_Type",0.0],UNIT["Meter",1.0],AUTHORITY["EPSG",3857]]

Reference system identifier
* Value 3857
* Codespace EPSG
* Version 7.11.2


Spatial Data Properties

Vector
* Level of topology for this dataset geometry only


Geometric objects
Feature class name DS0395_20080213
* Object type composite
* Object count 490



ArcGIS Feature Class Properties
Feature class name DS0395_20080213
* Feature type Simple
* Geometry type Polygon
* Has topology FALSE
* Feature count 490
* Spatial index TRUE
* Linear referencing FALSE



Data Quality

Scope of quality information
Resource level dataset




Data quality report - Conceptual consistency
Measure description
Following each survey, transect points were plotted using ArcView and checked for GPS errors or missing data.




Data quality report - Completeness omission
Measure description
Following each survey, transect points were checked for accuracy and completeness. In some cases, due to computer or GPS problems, sections of the transect were not captured. These sections were later recreated based on known waypoints and constant airspeed using interpolation programs written in SAS. Those added points are identified in the attribute table. (see attribute field Rectype, value = 'SAS').




Data quality report - Absolute external positional accuracy
Dimension horizontal


Measure description
Transect points were captured using a Garmin 12 + GPS. Positional accuracy assumed to be within 100 meters.




Lineage

Process step
When the process occurred 2007-02-13
Description
Edited original metadata by adding ISO keywords.


Process contact
Individual's name Kristina White
Organization's name California Department of Fish and Game
Contact's role processor


Contact information




Geoprocessing history

Process
Process name Project_4
Date 2005-09-0811:57:22
Tool location C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Data Management Tools.tbx\Project
Command issued
Include in lineage when exporting metadata No


Process
Date 2011-07-2108:55:30
Tool location C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Conversion Tools.tbx\FeatureClassToFeatureClass
Command issued
Include in lineage when exporting metadata No


Process
Date 2013-06-2114:56:38
Tool location c:\program files (x86)\arcgis\desktop10.1\ArcToolbox\Toolboxes\Data Management Tools.tbx\Project
Command issued
Include in lineage when exporting metadata No


Distribution

Distributor
Contact information
Individual's name William Perry
Organization's name USGS Biological Resources Discipline Western Ecological Research Center
Contact's position IT/GIS Specialist
Contact's role distributor


Contact information
Phone
Voice 530-669-5060

Address
Type both
Delivery point 6924 Tremont Road
City Dixon
Administrative area CA
Postal code 95620
Country US
e-mail address william_perry@usgs.gov



Ordering process



Distribution format
* Name SDE Feature Class


Transfer options
Online source
Location http://bios.dfg.ca.gov/

Fields

Details for object DS0395_20080213
* Row count 490
* Type Feature Class


Field OBJECTID
* Alias OBJECTID
* Data type OID
* Width 4
* Precision 10
* Scale 0
Field description
Internal feature number.
Description source
ESRI
Description of values
Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.




Field TGRIDALB_I
* Data type Double
* Width 8
* Alias TGRIDALB_I
* Precision 11
* Scale 0
Field description
unique identifier for 5-minute blocks
Description source
USGS


Field OID_
* Alias OID_
* Data type Integer
* Width 4
* Precision 10
* Scale 0




Field SHAPE
* Alias Shape
* Data type Geometry
* Width 4
* Precision 0
* Scale 0
* Field description
Feature geometry.
* Description source
ESRI
* Description of values
Coordinates defining the features.




Field Shape.STArea()
* Alias Shape.STArea()
* Data type Double
* Width 0
* Precision 0
* Scale 0




Field Shape.STLength()
* Alias Shape.STLength()
* Data type Double
* Width 0
* Precision 0
* Scale 0






Details for object Marine_Mammal_Sightings
* Row count 1441
* Type Table


Field MONTH
* Alias MONTH
* Data type Double
* Width 16
* Precision 15
* Scale 4
Field description
Month of survey - 1=January, 5=May, or 9=September
Description source
USGS


Field MMBM
* Alias MMBM
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMBM_BP
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) and Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) combined - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMBM_BP_MN
* Alias MMBM_BP_MN
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus), and Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) combined - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMBP
* Alias MMBP
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMCU
* Alias MMCU
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).


Field MMDD
* Alias MMDD
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Long and Short Beaked Common Dolphin (includes both Delphinus delphis and D. capensis) proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMEL
* Alias MMEL
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMER
* Alias MMER
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Grey Whale (Eschrichtius robustus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMGG
* Alias MMGG
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMLB
* Alias MMLB
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Northern right-whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density)
Description source
USGS


Field MMLO
* Alias MMLO
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMMA
* Alias MMMA
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMMN
* Alias MMMN
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMOO
* Alias MMOO
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Killer whale (Orcinus orca) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMPD
* Alias MMPD
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMPM
* Alias MMPM
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMPV
* Alias MMPV
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMTT
* Alias MMTT
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) - (includes both offshore and coastal forms); proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMZC
* Alias MMZC
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field MMZX
* Alias MMZX
* Data type Number
* Width 16
* Number of decimals 4
Field description
Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) - proportion of surveys across years where animals were detected in 5-minute blocks (NOT density).
Description source
USGS


Field TGRIDALB_I
Field description
unique identifier for 5-minute blocks
Description source
USGS




Metadata Details

Metadata language English(UNITED STATES)
Metadata character set utf8 - 8 bit UCS Transfer Format


Scope of the data described by the metadata dataset
Scope name * dataset


* Last update 2014-07-07


ArcGIS metadata properties
Metadata format ArcGIS1.0
Metadata style FGDC CSDGM Metadata


Created in ArcGIS for the item 2014-03-0616:13:41
Last modified in ArcGIS for the item 2014-07-0709:56:42


Automatic updates
Have been performed Yes
Last update 2014-07-0709:56:42


Metadata Contacts

Metadata contact
Individual's name William Perry
Organization's name USGS Biological Resources Discipline Western Ecological Research Center
Contact's position IT/GIS Specialist
Contact's role point of contact


Contact information
Phone
Voice 530-669-5060

Address
Type both
Delivery point 6924 Tremont Road
City Dixon
Administrative area Ca
Postal code 95620
Country US
e-mail address william_perry@usgs.gov



Thumbnail and Enclosures

Thumbnail

Enclosure
Enclosure type File
Description of enclosure original metadata
Original metadata document, which was translated yes
Source metadata format fgdc